Garcia-Garcia L, Valdespino-Gómez JL, Lazcano-Ponce E, Jimenez-Corona A, Higuera-Iglesias A, Cruz-Hervert P, Cano-Arellano B, Garcia-Anaya A, Ferreira-Guerrero E, Baez-Saldaña R, Ferreyra-Reyes L, Ponce-de-León-Rosales S, Alpuche-Aranda C, Rodriguez-López MH, Perez-Padilla R, Hernandez-Avila M.
BMJ. 2009 Oct 6;339:b3928. doi: 10.1136/bmj.b3928.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of 2008-9 seasonal trivalent inactivated vaccine with cases of influenza A/H1N1 during the epidemic in Mexico. DESIGN: Frequency matched case-control study. SETTING: Specialty hospital in Mexico City, March to May 2009. PARTICIPANTS: 60 patients with laboratory confirmed influenza A/H1N1 and 180 controls with other diseases (not influenza-like illness or pneumonia) living in Mexico City or the State of Mexico and matched for age and socioeconomic status. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Odds ratio and effectiveness of trivalent inactivated vaccine against influenza A/H1N1. RESULTS: Cases were more likely than controls to be admitted to hospital, undergo invasive mechanical ventilation, and die. Controls were more likely than cases to have chronic conditions that conferred a higher risk of influenza related complications. In the multivariate model, influenza A/H1N1 was independently associated with trivalent inactivated vaccine (odds ratio 0.27, 95% confidence interval 0.11 to 0.66) and underlying conditions (0.15, 0.08 to 0.30). Vaccine effectiveness was 73% (95% confidence interval 34% to 89%). None of the eight vaccinated cases died. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary evidence suggests some protection from the 2008-9 trivalent inactivated vaccine against pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009, particularly severe forms of the disease, diagnosed in a specialty hospital during the influenza epidemic in Mexico City.
PMID: 19808768 [PubMed - in process]